Sunday, September 25, 2016

Brief Comments on Riyaadh al-Saaliheen #109

Explanation of the last chapter and the last Hadeeth of Saheeh al-Bukhaaree by Shaikh Ibn al-`Uthaymeen رحمه الله.
(Adopted from the Shaikh's two books: Sharh of Saheeh al-Bukhaaree and Sharh of Riyaadh al-Saaliheen)

Quote: "When Allaah loves a thing, He تعالى also loves the one who is doing it."

بسم الله والحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله ، وبعد

(58) CHAPTER: The Statement of Allaah تعالى:

﴿وَنَضَعُ الْمَوَازِينَ الْقِسْطَ لِيَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ

{And We shall set up Balances of justice on the Day of Resurrection...}
[Surah al-Anbiyaa’ (21):47]

Imaam al-Bukhaaree said: The deeds and the statement of Aadam's offspring will be weighed.

Mujaahid said: “al-Qustaas” in Roman language means: “just”

It is also said: “al-Qist” (justice/fairness) is the root word of “al-Muqsit” which means: “a person who is just.” “al-Qaasit” means: “a person who is unjust.”


Shaikh Ibn al-`Uthaymeen رحمه الله said:
The author’s (Imaam al-Bukhaaree’s) statement: The deeds and the statement of Aadam's offspring will be weighed., this is the most preferred statement; i.e. the thing that will be weighed is the deed, whether it is the action (of the limbs) or the statement (of the tongue).

Some scholars have preferred (the opinion) that the thing which will be weighed is the book of deeds.

Others have preferred (the opinion) that the thing which will be weighed will be the doer himself.

As for those who said that the thing that will be weighed will be the deeds, then they have abundant proofs from the Qur’aan as well as from the Sunnah. The saying of Allaah تعالى:

﴿وَنَضَعُ الْمَوَازِينَ الْقِسْطَ لِيَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ فَلَا تُظْلَمُ نَفْسٌ شَيْئًا ۖ وَإِن كَانَ مِثْقَالَ حَبَّةٍ مِّنْ خَرْدَلٍ أَتَيْنَا بِهَا ۗ وَكَفَىٰ بِنَا حَاسِبِينَ

{And We shall set up Balances of justice on the Day of Resurrection, then none will be dealt with unjustly in anything. And if there be the weight of a mustard seed, We will bring it. And Sufficient are We as Reckoners.} [Surah al-Anbiyaa’ (21):47]

And also:

﴿فَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يَرَهُ * وَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ شَرًّا يَرَهُ﴾

{So, whosoever does good equal to the weight of an atom (or a small ant), shall see it. And whosoever does evil equal to the weight of an atom (or a small ant), shall see it.} [Surah al-Zalzalah (99): 7-8]

And also:

﴿فَمَن ثَقُلَتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ * وَمَنْ خَفَّتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ فِي جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدُونَ﴾

{Then, those whose scales (of good deeds) are heavy, - these, they are the successful. And those whose scales (of good deeds) are light, they are those who lose their ownselves, in Hell will they abide.} [Surah al-Mu’minoon (23): 102-103]

And there are more Aayaat which say that the thing which will be weighed will be the deeds.

Some said that the things which will be weighed are the record books, and their evidence was the Hadeeth of the “al-Bataaqah” (the card):

`Abdullaah bin `Amr رضي الله عنهما narrated that the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: A man from my nation will be called before all of creation on the Day of Resurrection, and ninety-nine scrolls will be spread out for him, each one extending as far as the eye can see. Then Allaah will say: {Do you deny anything of this?} He will say: “No, O Lord.” (Allaah) will say: {Have My recording scribes been unfair to you?} Then (Allaah) will say: {Apart from that, do you have any good deeds?} The man will be terrified and will say: “No.” (Allaah) will say: {Indeed, you have good deeds with Us, and you will not be treated unjustly this Day.} Then a card will be brought out on which is written “Ash-hadu an laa ilaaha illallaah wa anna Muhammadan `abduhoo wa rasooluhu” (I bear witness that none has the right to be worshiped but Allaah, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger). He will say: “O Lord, what is this card compared with these scrolls?” (Allaah) will say: {You will not be treated unjustly.} Then the scrolls will be placed in one side of the Balance and the card in the other. The scrolls will go up (i.e., be light) and the card will go down (i.e., will weigh heavily) [Nothing will be heavier than the Name of Allaah]. [Sunan Ibn Maajah (4300) and the wordings are his, Sunan al-Tirmidhee (2639) and the last part is from him; and graded as “Saheeh as per the condition of Imaam Muslim” by Shaikh al-Albaanee in al-Saheehah (135)]

This is the evidence that the things which will be weighed are the record books.

The third saying: the thing which will be measured is the doer himself; they base this on the following Hadeeth:

Umm Moosaa said: “I heard `Alee رضي الله عنه say that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم commanded `Abdullaah Ibn Mas`ood to climb a tree and bring him something from it. His Companions looked at `Abdullaah’s shanks and laughed at its thinness. The Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: Why are you laughing? The shanks (in another narration: the legs) of `Abdullaah Ibn Mas`ood will be heavier on the scale than the mountain of Uhud. [Al-Adab al-Mufrad (237), Musnad of Imaam Ahmad (920, 3991) and graded as “Saheeh li ghairihee” by Shaikh al-Albaanee. See al-Saheehah (2750, 3192)]

As evidence they also mention the saying of Allaah تعالى:

﴿فَلَا نُقِيمُ لَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَزْنًا

{…and on the Day of Resurrection, We shall not give them any weight.} [Surah al-Kahf (18): 105]

The response to this is that the Aayah is not a proof their stance in the first place, because the meaning is that they (the Kuffaar) will not have any value (on that Day); for the scales will be established for everyone.

As for the Hadeeth of `Abdullaah Ibn Mas`od, what is apparent is that the doer will be weighed, but we can say: This is specific only for Ibn Mas`ood or maybe a few others, but this will be very rare.

And the most preferred opinion from all these three sayings is: The things that will be measured on the scale will be the deeds, as Imaam al-Bukhaaree رحمه الله had said.

And his saying: “al-Muqsit” means: “a person who is just”, and “al-Qaasit” means: “a person who is unjust”, this is true, as Allaah تعالى had said:

﴿وَأَقْسِطُوا ۖ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ

{…and be just. Indeed Allaah loves those who act justly.} [Surah al-Hujuraat (49): 9. See also Surah al-Maaidah (5):42 and Surah al-Mumtahanah (60):8]

And also:

﴿وَأَمَّا الْقَاسِطُونَ فَكَانُوا لِجَهَنَّمَ حَطَبًا﴾

{And as for the Qaasitoon, they shall be firewood for Hell} [Surah al-Jinn (72):15]


Then Imaam al-Bukhaaree reported:
7563. Narrated Abu Hurairah رضي الله عنه: The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: (There are) two expressions which are dear to the Most Gracious (Allaah), and very easy for the tongue to say, but very heavy in weight in the balance. They are: سُبْحَانَ اَللَّهِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ “Subhaan Allaahi wa bihamdihi” and سُبْحَانَ اَللَّهِ اَلْعَظِيمِ “Subhaan Allaahil-`Adheem”.
[See also Hadeeth (6406 & 6682) and Saheeh Muslim (6511)]

This Hadeeth is another evidence that the things that will be weighed on the scale are the deeds.

The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: (There are) two expressions which are dear to the Most Gracious (Allaah), meaning: He عز وجل loves them.

 and very easy for the tongue to say, meaning: they are not heavy (or difficult) upon the tongue; i.e. saying: سُبْحَانَ اَللَّهِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ and سُبْحَانَ اَللَّهِ اَلْعَظِيمِ.

 but very heavy in weight in the balance, meaning: this is clear that the thing that will be weighed are the deeds. Meaning: On the Day of Judgment these two statements will be placed on the scale and they will be weighty.

Question: If someone asks: How will the deeds be weighted (when they have no physical form)?
The response: Indeed Allaah تعالى is capable of giving a physical form to the deeds. The example for that is “Death” – which is intangible and a characteristic – will be brought forward on the Day of Judgment, and the people of Hell-Fire and the people of the Jannah will look at it, and it will be slaughtered in front of all of them. Then it will be said: “O People of the Jannah! Eternity for you and no death. O People of Jahannam! Eternity for you and no death.”* Indeed! Allaah has power over all things.

*[TN: The complete Hadeeth is as follows:
Narrated Abu Sa`eed al-Khudree رضي الله عنه: Allaah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم said: On the Day of Resurrection Death will be brought forward in the shape of a black and white ram. Then a call maker will call: “O people of Paradise!” Thereupon they will stretch their necks and look carefully. The caller will say: “Do you know this?” They will say: “Yes, this is Death.” By then all of them will have seen it. Then it will be announced again: “O people of Hell!” They will stretch their necks and look carefully. The caller will say: “Do you know this?” They will say: “Yes, this is Death.” And by then all of them will have seen it. Then it (that ram) will be slaughtered and the caller will say: “O people of Paradise! Eternity for you and no death. O people of Hell! Eternity for you and no death.” Then the Prophet, recited: {And warn them of the Day of distress when the case has been decided, while (now) they are in a state of carelessness (i.e. the people of the world) and they do not believe.} [Surah Maryam (19):39] [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (4730) and Saheeh Muslim (6827)]]

And the Prophet’s صلى الله عليه وسلم saying: سُبْحَانَ اَللَّهِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ, meaning: I glorify Allaah with the Glorification accompanied with His praises; connecting between Takhliyah (removing) and Tahliyah (adorning/affirming).

Takhliyah, meaning: Declaring Allaah to be free from all types of deficiencies and shortcomings.

Tahliyah, meaning: Affirming for Allaah all the perfect Attributes.

And only through these (two – Takhliyah and Tahliyah) will one be able to affirm perfection for Allaah. Any perfection which is accompanied by any deficiency is not perfection in the true sense. True perfection is when the deficiencies are removed and only perfect (Attributes) are affirmed. This is why these two words have been joined together: سُبْحَانَ اَللَّهِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ. The letter “ب” (Baa) here is for association.

And in his saying: سُبْحَانَ اَللَّهِ اَلْعَظِيمِ, it is further affirmation to has already preceded. Al-`Adheem refers to Allaah’s Greatness and Majesty.

[Sharh Saheeh al-Bukhaaree of Shaikh Ibn al-Uthaymeen (9/570-572/7563) as well as in Sharh Saheeh Muslim (7/575)]

۞۞۞۞۞۞

Shaikh Ibn al-`Uthaymeen رحمه الله also said:
The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said regarding these two phrases that:
1. They are easy upon the tongue, meaning: there is no difficulty involved in saying them.
2. Heavy on the Balance, and this is in comparison to the above (i.e. they are light upon the tongue to say, but they will be heavy on the scale on the Day of Judgment).
3. And beloved to the Most Gracious, meaning: Allaah تعالى loves them.

These are the three benefits of this Hadeeth.

In some narrations: سُبْحَانَ اَللَّهِ اَلْعَظِيمِ is mentioned before سُبْحَانَ اَللَّهِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ, whatever the sequence, the meaning does not change.

Therefore, it is upon us to increase in saying these two sentences because of the many benefits associated with them: heavy on the scales, beloved to the Most Gracious, while it does not involve any difficulty, rather, they are easy upon the tongue. Example: One can say them a lot of times while on his way back to his house from the Masjid.

[Sharh Saheeh al-Bukhaaree of Shaikh Ibn al-Uthaymeen (8/271-272/6406)]

۞۞۞۞۞۞

Shaikh Ibn al-`Uthaymeen رحمه الله also said:
We should give precedence to saying these phrases most of the time because they are beloved to al-Rahmaan. So we should often utilize our time in saying these phrases because Allaah تعالى loves them, they should be on our tongues as often as possible, and they are easy to say as the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم had said. So increase the remembrance of Allaah through these phrases as they are loved by Allaah عز وجل.

The phrase سُبْحَانَ اَللَّهِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ combines between al-Tanzeeh and al-Tamjeed wal-Thanaa’.

Al-Tanzeeh is in the saying: “سُبْحَانَ اَللَّهِ”, which is to declare Allaah to be free from all imperfections (and weaknesses and everything that is falsely attributed to Him and that does not suit His Majesty such as attributing to Him a son, or trinity etc.)

Al-Tamjeed wal-Thanaa’ is in the saying: “وَبِحَمْدِهِ”, which is praise and affirm all the Beautiful Names and Lofty Attributes of Allaah.

[Sharh Saheeh al-Bukhaaree of Shaikh Ibn al-Uthaymeen (8/598/6682)]

۞۞۞۞۞۞

Shaikh Ibn al-`Uthaymeen رحمه الله also said:
The two phrases, firstly, they are light upon the tongue. But they will be heavy in the Balance – on the Day of Judgment when the deeds will be weighed. When these phrases will be placed on the Balance, they will increase the weight. Thirdly, they are beloved to al-Rahmaan, and this is greater of the two rewards (i.e. between having the balance become heavy and the love of Allaah for them).  For when Allaah تعالى loves a thing, He تعالى also loves the one who is doing it. These two phrases are some of the causes which increase the love of Allaah for His slaves.

What is the meaning of: سُبْحَانَ اَللَّهِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ “Subhaan Allaahi wa bihamdihi”?

It means that you declare Allaah to be free from all imperfections and deficiencies and that He جل وعلا is perfect in all sense. The Tasbeeh (Glorification) is accompanied by al-Hamd (Praises) which points to the perfect favors and blessings of Allaah upon His creation, as well as His perfect Wisdom and Knowledge and other than that from His Lofty Attributes.

As for سُبْحَانَ اَللَّهِ اَلْعَظِيمِ “Subhaan Allaahil-`Adheem”, refers to Allaah’s Greatness and Majesty. There is nothing greater than Allaah in His Dominion, nor is there anyone greater in might than Him, nor is there anyone greater than Him in Wisdom, nor is there anyone greater than Him in Knowledge. He is Great in His Dhaat (Essence) and He is Great in His Attributes – Subhaan-Allaahi wa bi Hamdihi, Subhaan-Allaahil-`Adheem.

O slaves of Allaah! Be in constant remembrance of Allaah through these two phrases as they will be heavy on the scale and are beloved to al-Rahmaan, and are light on the tongue - Subhaan-Allaahi wa bi Hamdihi, Subhaan-Allaahil-`Adheem.

[Sharh Riyaadh al-Saaliheen (5/486-487)]

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